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CBD Oil: A Definitive Guide

Cannabidiol (CBD) oil has become one of the hottest new products in Europe and the United States.

Hundreds of stores are now selling CBD infused products. Celebrities are claiming CBD as their new favourite health supplement. Sales of CBD and cannabis products are skyrocketing.

But does CBD live up to the hype? How safe is it? How much should you take? Is it worth the money? Plus, I answer a dozen other questions in this definitive CBD oil guide.

Learning how to make informed choices which choosing and using CBD will help you gain the most benefit from this unique and powerful plant extract. If you plan to take advantage of CBD’s benefits — or even if you already are — read on for answers to all your CBD-related questions in this essential guide.

What is CBD?

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the human body is designed to maintain homeostasis. Which essentially means it keeps many parts of the inside of your body working well together.

CBD is a cannabinoid and your body’s endocannabinoid system has two kinds of cannabinoid receptors.

The first type of receptor (CB1) exists in central nervous system, cardiovascular system, reproductive system, and in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, they are involved in many physical and biochemical responses in the body, including:

  • influence in the fight/flight response
  • unconscious muscle movement
  • motor coordination and balance
  • transmission of information from the brain to the spinal column, and vice versa
  • complex thinking and higher cognitive function
  • sexual behaviour
  • eating and sleeping patterns
  • pain perception and sensitivity
  • memory and integration of newly learned information

The second of cannabinoid receptor type (CB2) are found in peripheral tissues and organs (especially in the immune system cells), in the testes and brain, and in the enteric nervous system (which helps to regulate GI tract mobility).

All CBD compounds originate from arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid which is abundant in the brain, muscles and liver. It is an important regulator of inflammatory response in the body. As fat-based mediators, CBD compounds respond to the regulation of cholesterol levels in the body and can be negatively impacted when cholesterol is too low or is not properly synthesised.

Does CBD work or is it placebo?

Many people are finding CBD is making meaningful positive impacts in their lives. Some of them, in an enormous way.

YouTube has dozens of and search for CDB and you’ll see many people’s experiences with it.

A percentage of people when taking CBD for anxiety notice a huge change for the better almost at once. Some people take weeks to notice a change for the better. Some people notice no significant difference.

Like most supplements it depends on the person, and ailment they have, plus the dose they are taking.

Because of legalities, it has been hard to study cannabis until very recent years. This means that most of the evidence from studies will come out over the next few years.

James Giordano, a professor of neurology and biochemistry at Georgetown University Medical Center, says animal studies and “very, very preliminary” human trials suggest CBD also has therapeutic potential for other conditions, such as anxiety and insomnia.

Some ailments have no evidence that CBD works to remedy them yet people find CBD helps with their ailment. Some ailments have significant evidence.

We’ll cover the ailments and let you know which one’s have evidence to support the fact that CBD works and which don’t.

How can I tell CBD is working?

CBD is cumulative, meaning it takes time to build up in your body. Some people notice a change after a few days (on the correct dose) while some take nearly two months to feel a significant difference. Also, unfortunately CBD doesn’t make a noticeable difference for some people.

Because CBD is cumulative, it’s also best to adopt a protocol accompanied by a clean diet and be on a look out for the follow signs of recovery :

  • Physical changes to your body – such as more energy, lose of weight, healthier looking skin and other physical effects.
  • Increased mobility – you might find you are more agile, better able to move, better joint health, feeling stronger and more endurance.
  • Health Repair – the ability to bounce back with better recovery after illness, allergies, toxin exposures, injuries, or chronic conditions.
  • Mood Elevation – a greater sense of happiness and well-being with fewer “ups and downs.”
  • Ongoing Sense of Calm, Mindfulness and Happiness – usually after a couple of months of cumulative benefit.
  • Side effects – The most common side effects of CBD administration appear to be tiredness, diarrhoea, and changes in both weight and appetite. Overall, these side effects seem quite minor when compared to the most common positive effects. Also side effects are rare, but something to always keep in mind whenever taking a new supplement.

How is CBD taken?

The effects of CBD depend on how the CBD is taken.

If you swallow the CBD, goes via the liver which breaks down the CBD slightly and then it goes into your bloodstream. You can swallow CBD by squeezing the dropper straight into your mouth and swallowing the oil. This is the quickest method of ingesting CBD orally. You can also take CBD in capsules. There are even CBD gummies and even CBD coffee and every other kind CBD infused food products you can probably imagine.

If you vape the CBD, it skips the liver and goes straight into the bloodstream. This means vaping gives you a faster effect and a stronger effect.

Sublingual means putting the oil under your tongue and leaving it there for a few minutes. This helps part of the CDB skip the liver as the liquid is absorbed via the blood vessels under the tongue, giving a stronger effect. Some of that CBD liquid will naturally get swallowed too. This means that sublingual is stronger than swallowing, but not as strong as vaping.

What’s the correct dose of CBD?

The average dose range is 10-50 mg of CBD, one to three times per day, though much higher doses of 100-200 mg (sometimes required to control pain) are equally well tolerated.

Some people will notice benefit at the lower end of the dose range, but most people will need 15-30 mg to notice any effects.

Because different products provide different concentrations of CBD, the packaging usually states how much CBD is in the entire bottle as opposed to the amount in a certain number of drops or dropperfuls, so measuring can be a little tricky.

If you’re taking the oil in liquid form, one dropperful of a low concentration product (100 mg CBD per fluid ounce) will provide about 3 mg of CBD per dropperful — not enough to notice any significant effects.

A dropperful of the medium grade product (500 mg of CBD per fluid ounce) will deliver about 15 mg of CBD — a good starting dose. And a dropperful of a high concentration product (1500 mg CBD per fluid ounce) will provide about 50 mg of CBD per dropperful.

As with any medicinal herb, start at a low dose and gradually build up to a higher dose as you get used to the effects of the substance. Most people notice benefits almost immediately, but some experts suggest that full benefit does not occur until after a couple of weeks of consecutive use.

Does CBD make you high?

CBD comes from the cannabis plant, the same plant that makes you high or stoned if you smoke it, but CBD does not make you high. It’s not psychoactive.

THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is psychoactive and is the chemical that is associated with the stoned or high feeling people think about when they think about the cannabis or marijuana plant.

CBD is almost psychoactive in a way because at low doses it can give you a slightly energy boost like a coffee but without the buzz or tension. Also it can increase mood by reducing anxiety, stress and depression.

Does CBD Oil have THC?

The short answer is yes. But before you worry, the amounts are so tiny, that they’re nearly undetectable.

Like a Mars bar that has been made in the same factory as a Snickers bar, the chances of the Mars bar having a teeny tiny microscopic bit of peanut dust in it, are fairly reasonable.

The CBD oil we sell at Boyd’s CBD is over 99.9% pure. Every single reputable company that sells CBD should have a product that is over 99.9% pure but it’s impossible to get a 100% pure product. Any CBD seller that’s telling you that have 100% pure CBD is probably telling a fib… or maybe just rounding up.

Will CBD show up on a drug test?

It is unlikely that people who take CBD will fail on a drugs test. CBD itself is not illegal to take. CBD itself won’t show up on a drugs test.

If take a drug test for employment, chances are they will screen for cannabis. However, usually they are screening for THC in particular, not not CBD.

Because CBD is chemical distinct from THC is very unlikely that CBD will give a false positive for THC.

The issue is that some CBD products can contain the traces of THC as CBD and THC both come from the cannabis plant and THC itself is what will trigger a positive drugs test.

Is CBD Safe & How Does It Work?

People have used Marijuana to treat pain as far back as 2900 B.C. (2).

Recently, scientists have discovered that components of marijuana, including CBD, have pain-relieving effects.

We call these components cannabinoids. In fact, your body produces cannabinoids naturally.

The human body has an endocannabinoid system (ECS), which regulates a variety of functions including sleep, appetite, pain and immune system response (3).

Therefore cannabinoids like CBD work so well with and are so harmless to the body.

CBD for Treating Epilepsy

Using cannabidiol to treat epilepsy has significant scientific evidence supporting it.

Last month, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory panel recommended approval of the CBD medication Epidiolex to treat two rare forms of childhood epilepsy.

CBD for Inflammation

Using cannabidiol to treat inflammation is one of the most accepted remedies of CBD oil

Endocannabinoids appear to play an important role in regulating inflammation processes. Scientists from the University of Bonn have discovered this in experiments on mice.

Extracts of the hemp plant cannabis are used as a popular remedy against inflammation. At the beginning of the last century this natural remedy was even available at every chemist’s. But due to the intoxicating effect of the component THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) the plant was taken off the chemist’s shelves in the 1930s.

Now with new technology and our ability to isolate CBD from the cannabis plant it’s possible to use cannabis to treat inflammation without the intoxicating effects.

Additional approaches one can take to lower inflammation:

  • A nutrient-rich diet: a whole food diet, devoid of processed foods, will naturally decrease inflammation.
  • Exercise: active movement increases circulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines from the skeletal muscles.
  • Sufficient sleep: your body naturally lowers inflammation while you get shut eye.
  • Herbal medicine: turmeric, ginger, cinnamon, nettle, and various medicinal mushrooms can help decrease inflammation throughout the body.
  • Probiotics & Prebiotics: these supplements promote healthy bacteria in the gut, which lowers inflammation and promotes a healthy immune response.

CBD for Neuropathic pain

There have been multiple clinical trials showing the efficacy of THC plus CBD on central and peripheral neuropathic pain and rheumatoid arthritis. However none we can find that specifically deal with CBD on its own.  

However, the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD (discussed above) could be predicted to play a role in the analgesic effects of CBD on neuropathic pain.


A systematic review of the literature in 2006 by Iskedjian et al. compiled multiple studies, which examined neuropathic pain of 298 participants in response to cannabidiol (CBD) versus a placebo. Measurement of pain was subjective to an 11-point ordinal scale or a visual analogue scale amongst the studies examined. The study was able to conclude that in response to CBD administration, there was a statistically significant decrease in subjective pain score measures amongst the cannabis group in relationship to the placebo group. In addition biochemical analysis in animal models have expressed reductions in oxidative stress by CBD administration. Data would suggest that CBD attenuates destructive effects on neurons by decreasing oxidative stress and ultimately providing protection to the myelination of neurons (protective lining of the cells) Sajjadian et al., 2017.


  1. Iskedjian M, Bereza B, Gordon A, Piwko C, Einarson TR. Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain. Curr Med Res Opin2007;
  2. SAJJADIAN, Maryam et al. Protective effects of cannabidiol on cuprizone-induced demyelination in C57BL/6 mice. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 11, p. 278-283, sep. 2017. ISSN 2413-0516.

CBD for Autoimmune Disease

CBD has been found to modulate the immune system instead of suppressing it. Cannabidiol also slows down T-cell production and suppresses immune system memory, meaning that CBD could cut down on the likelihood of future autoimmune attacks.

CBD has also been found to increase the expression of genes that deal with oxidative stress, which may reduce cell damage from autoimmune attacks.

There are many types of autoimmune disease and CBD is not guaranteed to remedy them, but it’s certainly worth trying as many people have had

Decreasing inflammation

Inflammation is the root cause of many illnesses, and autoimmunity is no exception. Extensive research has been performed on the anti-inflammatory properties of THC, CBD, and other cannabis components. If inflammation response is regulated, there will be less likelihood of an autoimmune attack. More investigation is needed to examine the particular role of cannabinoids for autoimmune disorders.

CBD for Energy Regulation

The endocannabinoid system in our bodies is designed to maintain a homeostasis. In other words the system which CBD acts on in our body, keeps us in a steady state of equilibrium.

The endocannabinoid system has lipid receptors which work

“We only respond to cannabis because we are built with intrinsic compounds and receptors that can also be activated by compounds in the cannabis plant.” – Yankel Gabet, Author

G-protein couple receptors (GPCR) are located inside our cells.

(Irannejad et al, 2017 & 2013, Jong et al, 2016; Jalink and Moolenaar, 2010).

This means that CBD is able to pass through the cells water and lipid pathways and activate CB1 receptors located within membranes and mitochondria, thus triggering G-protein signalling (Rozenfeld and Devi, 2008).

Mitochondria regulate numerous cellular processes crucial for high-energy organs in the body (such as the brain, heart, and liver), most notably ATP production and tight modulation of calcium. These functions are necessary for normal synaptic transmission and energy production in the body. ATP is the energy which runs all body systems and is the end product of proper nutrition, efficient digestion, and assimilation. Mitochondria regulate its distribution and may be optimised by activation of CB1 receptors.

Individualised therapy with CBD is useful in mitigating conditions which involve mitochondrial stress, such as a viral infection (EBV & Herpes family viruses), CFS (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), fibromyalgia, heart disease, and many others.

CBD for Metabolism

In a published study Korean researchers studied the effects of CBD administration on fat cells. Remarkably, CBD was found to :

  1. Stimulate genes and proteins that enhance the breakdown and oxidation of fat
  2. Increase the number and activity of mitochondria (which increases the body’s ability to burn calories)
  3. Decrease the expression of proteins involved in lipogenesis (fat cell generation)

In short, they found CBD helps to burn fat and reduce new fat being produced.

Not only that but it increases the body’s ability to burn fat into energy giving you a boost of energy too.

CBD for Reproductive Function

Recently we’ve also learnt that sperm motility and production is also associated with the endocannabinoid system.

CBD has been shown to increase sperm production. THC does the opposite.

Patrizia Bovolin, Erika Cottone, Valetina Pomatto, et al. “Endocannabinoids are involved in male vertebrate reproduction: regulatory mechanisms at central and gonadal level”. (2014). Frontiers in Endocrinology (2014) 5:54, 1-8. “Mouse Study Suggests Marijuana May Affect Male Fertility”. Published 20 April 2016. Accessed 20 September 2016. <>.

CBD for Appetite

Most people know ‘marijuana gives you the munchies’ but it does this by increase the hormone ghrelin which is responsible for hunger and growth. But what about CBD?

CBD by contrast does not cause the munchies. But it may boost appetite in a different way. CBD helps relieve nausea and can calm your nervous system and digestive tract,” says Janice Newell Bissex, a registered dietitian. “If you feel less nauseated, you may eat more. CBD also quells pain, and feeling less pain may also boost appetite.”

However if you are not having any appetite problems, such as you can’t eat because you’re in pain or discomfort, then CBD reduces appetite by blocking some of your CB1 receptors which blocks some ghrelin, the chemical responsible with making you hungry.

CBD for Depression

Clinical depression is a serious mood disorder characterised by persistent sadness and loss of interest, sometimes leading to decreased appetite and energy and suicidal thoughts. Commonly used pharmaceuticals for depression often target serotonin, a chemical messenger that is believed to act as a mood stabiliser. The neural network of the endocannabinoid system works similarly to the way that serotonin, dopamine, and other systems do, and, according to some research, cannabinoids have an effect on serotonin levels. Whereas a low dose of THC increases serotonin, high doses cause a decrease that could worsen the condition.[312] In 2009 researchers concluded that there was substantial evidence pointing to endocannabinoid signalling as a target for the pharmacotherapy of depression.[313] Authors of a 2016 study wrote that “CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism.”[314]

CBD might especially be effective for depression related to chronic stress, which has been shown to cause a decrease in endocannabinoid levels.[315,316]

CBD for Sleep Disorders

For many people, CBD oil benefits them by providing more energy. The energy is relaxing and calm mental and physical energy.

However many people find they also sleep better a few hours after taking CBD.

Several studies conducted between 2004 and 2008 showed the variable effect of different cannabinoids on sleep. In one, 15 mg of THC appeared to have sedative properties, while 15 mg of CBD appeared to have alerting properties.[416]

Another tested the effects of CBD on animal models in both lights-on and lights-off environments and found that this non-psychoactive cannabis compound increased alertness with the lights on and had no discernable effects on lights-off sleep. The study’s authors concluded that CBD might hold therapeutic promise for those with somnolence, or excessive daytime sleepiness from a not-so-good night’s rest.

Another study from CBD helped people be more alert, and some of them reported having a better nights sleep a few hours after taking it. [417]

“Many of my patients report either better energy or sleepiness on the same high-CBD/low-THC plants,” Dr. Michael Moskowitz reported. “Most, however, feel more energy on high-CBD cannabis.” [418]

Indica varieties of THC appear to work best as a sleep aid for most people. However, a significant number of people find THC, even indica strains, will make the mind more active. For these people, CBD oil can benefit them and works well, providing the relaxation and calm for the mental and the physical body. For these people, CBD taken at nighttime as part of a bedtime regime produces a restful sleep, not the alertness produced in the daytime. This bidirectional effect of CBD results from balancing the endocannabinoid system.

CBD and Bone Healing

In 2015 an important research project concluded that CBD greatly improved the healing of bone fractures.

The research was led jointly by Dr. Yankel Gabet of the Bone Research Laboratory at the Department of Anatomy and Anthropology and the late Prof. Itai Bab of Hebrew University’s Bone Laboratory.

The team claimed their findings on CBDs impact on bone healing to be “undeniable clinical potential” and stated: “We found that CBD alone makes bones stronger during healing, enhancing the maturation of the collagenous matrix, which provides the basis for new mineralisation of bone tissue. After being treated with CBD, the healed bone will be harder to break.”

The same team, in earlier research, discovered that CBD stimulated bone formation and inhibited bone loss. This paves the way for the future use of cannabinoid drugs to combat osteoporosis and other bone-related disease

CBD and Immune Modulation

Inflammation in a very acute or dangerous situation is usually a good thing. It helps to isolate the area and bring protective cells such as white blood cells to that area.

The problem is inflammation is usually like the nuclear option to a problem that usually doesn’t require so much inflammation. The body doesn’t care so much about our comfort nor does it know we have science and medicine now. It just wants to get out of this trauma alive.

When this process of inflammation is not properly modulated, it can become chronic and tissues can be damaged and destroyed.

One tactic used by the immune system might not work and another inflammatory response is triggered, then another. It can cause the immune receptors to become saturated and down-regulate or become desensitised. This can lead to all types of autoimmune diseases.

The immune system is balanced between two sides, the TH1 and the TH2. If you find you suffer from the same kind of illness or sickness, most likely it’s because your immune system is unbalanced and either the TH1 or the TH2 side is dominant making the other side weaker which is why certain kinds of illness always seem to affect you.

It’s been proven that CBD can be helpful in supporting TH1 regulation and destruction, including the reduction of interleukin-8 and other chemokines. (3). This helps the body to keep a balanced immune system leading to you not being susceptible to the same kinds of illnesses over and over.

Other uses

CBD has anecdotal evidence that is has many other uses including:

Although more research is required to confirm some uses of CBD oil, it is shaping up as a potentially promising and versatile treatment.

How is CBD made?

We extract CBD from the cannabis or marijuana plant using CO2. This method is the safest and produces the cleanest and most tasteless CBD.

Co2 pushes through the plant at high pressures and low temperatures. This is the method used in the extract at Boyd’s CBD.


CBD has been life changing for some people. However, you must understand the correct dosage and administration methods. Be aware it’s possible but rare for some minor side effects. Also, it can take days, weeks or even a month or slightly more to feel the benefits of CBD. Some people don’t feel a strong enough benefit from CBD to be worthwhile continuing taking it financially. However, in our experience those who don’t get the benefits are probably not taking the correct dose and are not taking it long enough. Get in touch with us if you have any questions about the correct dosage for your needs.

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